Projects
746 Projects

Media are grouped by projects created by users. Projects tend to contain media tied together by a theme. A project might represent the dataset for a single peer-reviewed paper, the results of a collections digitization project, or data for a digital lesson plan.

Projects can be used to share media ownership and access between project members, and projects can also be used to publish assortments of media and specimens for access and discovery by the public. If you want to share media ownership and access with multiple users across multiple projects, consider creating a user team. Projects can be managed by teams, and users with access to that team also gain access to any projects managed by that team.

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Listing of items you have deposited in MorphoSource
Title Description Team Creator Media Objects
Display all details of 3D surface scanning versus microCT scanning in very small vertebrate crania This project is the first chapter of a PhD on morphological diversity in Australian rodents. It will be published as a methodology paper in PeerJ, titled "Low resolution scans can provide a sufficiently accurate, cost- and time-effective alternative to high resolution scans for 3D shape analyses." I have used both scanning devices on 20 unique individuals' crania from the smallest rodent species in Australia (Pseudomys delicatulus). This project includes raw DICOM files for the microCT scans, as well as the finalized .STL files from both the microCT and the 3D scanners which I used for landmarking. 60 20
Display all details of Morphological and ecological convergence at the lower size limit for vertebrates highlighted by five new miniaturised microhylid frog species from three different Madagascan genera Miniaturised frogs form a fascinating but poorly understood amphibian ecomorph and have been exceptionally prone to taxonomic underestimation. The subfamily Cophylinae (family Microhylidae), endemic to Madagascar, has a particularly large diversity of miniaturised species which have historically been attributed to the single genus Stumpffia largely based on their small size. Recent phylogenetic work has revealed that several independent lineages of cophyline microhylids evolved towards highly miniaturised body sizes, achieving adult snout-vent lengths under 16 mm. Here, we describe five new species belonging to three clades that independently miniaturised and that are all genetically highly divergent from their relatives: (i) a new genus (Mini gen. nov.) with three new species from southern Madagascar, (ii) one species of Rhombophryne, and (iii) one species of Anodonthyla. Mini mum sp. nov. from Manombo in eastern Madagascar is one of the smallest frogs in the world, reaching an adult body size of 9.7 mm in males and 11.3 mm in females. Mini scule sp. nov. from Sainte Luce in southeastern Madagascar is slightly larger and has maxillary teeth. Mini ature sp. nov. from Andohahela in southeast Madagascar is larger than its congeners but is similar in build. Rhombophryne proportionalis sp. nov. from Tsaratanana in northern Madagascar is unique among Madagascar’s miniaturised frogs in being a proportional dwarf, exhibiting far less advanced signs of paedomorphism than other species of similar size. Anodonthyla eximia sp. nov. from Ranomafana in eastern Madagascar is distinctly smaller than any of its congeners and is secondarily terrestrial, providing further evidence that miniaturisation and terrestriality are evolutionarily linked. The evolution of body size in Madagascar’s microhylids has been more dynamic than previously understood, and future studies will hopefully shed light on the interplay between ecology and evolution of these remarkably diverse frogs. 10 10
Display all details of Braincase and endocranial anatomy of two thalattosuchian crocodylomorphs and their relevance in understanding their adaptations to the marine environment. Based on X-ray CT scanning and digital endocast reconstructions we describe the braincase and endocranial anatomy of two well-preserved specimens of Thalattosuchia, the semiaquatic teleosaurid Steneosaurus bollensis and the pelagic metriorhynchid Cricosaurus araucanensis. 2 2
Display all details of Fruits and flowers of the Dakota Formation Fruits and flowers preserved within shales and sandstones of the Albian-Cenomanian Dakota Formation of Kansas and Nebraska preserve morphological characters that are well documented by micro-CT scanning. 4 3
Display all details of Robson et al. Harpagolestes project Harpagolestes left dentary from the Clarno Formation, Oregon 3 1
Display all details of Late Cretaceous infructescences of Operculifructus (Cornales) from Mexico PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Cretaceous Cornales provide a crucial record of the early history of asterids. Most lineages of the order are well represented in the fossil record, but southern African families of Curtisiaceae and Grubbiaceae remain poorly understood. Seventy-three specimens of a fossil infructescence belonging to the genus Operculifructus Estrada-Ruiz & Cevallos-Ferriz from the Late Cretaceous (Campanian) El Gallo Formation, Baja California, México bear previously undescribed characters that suggest a relationship to Grubbiaceae. METHODS: Microstructures of the fossils were examined through light microscopy and X-ray micro-computed tomography (microCT) scanning. Modern Grubbia tomentosa (Thunb.) Harms fruits were scanned for comparison to the fossil material. Phylogenetic analyses using the 77 fruit characters of Atkinson (2018) were performed to test relationships of the fossil to major lineages of the order. Analyses applied several topological constraints to the extant taxa, based on various genetically-supported hypotheses of relationship within Cornales. KEY RESULTS: Novel structures of Operculifructus newly observed here include (1) anatropous ovules, (2) drupaceous fruits, (3) an epigynous disc, (4) a stylar canal in the center of the disc aligned with the micropylar protrusion of the seed. Phylogenetic analysis consistently resolves Operculifructus as sister to Grubbiaceae. CONCLUSIONS: Operculifructus provides direct evidence for the occurrence of the Grubbiaceae in the Late Cretaceous, much older than previous Eocene evidence. The phylogeny of Atkinson (2018) indicates that the new phylogenetic position recovered for Operculifructus also establishes the presence of the most basal drupaceous cornalean fruits within North America by the Campanian. 12 1
Display all details of Birmingham Ichthyosaur Project 3D data of the Thinktank Birmingham Science Museum ichthyosaur skull. All media in this project are for the publication by Lomax et al. 10 1
Display all details of Shell variability in the stem turtles Proterochersis spp. Background. Turtle shells tend to exhibit frequent and substantial variability, both in bone and scute layout. Aside from secondary changes, caused by diseases, parasites, and trauma, this variability appears to be inherent and result from stochastic or externally-induced flaws of developmental programs. It is, thus, expected to be present in fossil turtle species at least as prominently, as in modern populations. Descriptions of variability and ontogeny are, however, rare for fossil turtles, mainly due to rarity, incompleteness, damage, and post-mortem deformation of their remains. This paper is an attempt at description and interpretation of external shell variability in representatives of the oldest true turtles, Proterochersis robusta and P. porebensis (Proterochersidae, the sister group to all other known testudinatans) from the Late Triassic (Norian) of Germany and Poland. Methods. All the available shell remains of Proterochersis robusta (13 specimens) and P. porebensis (275 specimens) were studied morphologically in order to identify any ontogenetic changes, intraspecific variability, sexual dimorphism, and shell abnormalities. To test the inferred sexual dimorphism, shape analyses were performed for two regions (gular and anal) of the plastron. Results. Proterochersis spp. exhibits large shell variability, and at least some of the observed changes seem to be correlated with ontogeny (growth of gulars, extragulars, caudals, and marginals, disappearance of middorsal keel on the carapace). Several specimens show abnormal layout of scute sulci, several others unusual morphologies of vertebral scute areas, one has an additional pair of plastral scutes, and one extraordinarily pronounced, likely pathological, growth rings on the carapace. Both species are represented in a wide spectrum of sizes, from hatchlings to old, mature individuals. The largest fragmentary specimens of P. porebensis allow estimation of its maximal carapace length at approximately 80 cm, while P. robusta appears to have reached lower maximal sizes. Discussion. This is the second contribution describing variability among numerous specimens of Triassic turtles, and the first to show evidence of unambiguous shell abnormalities. Presented data supplement the sparse knowledge of shell scute development in the earliest turtles and suggest that at least some aspects of the developmental programs governing scute development were already similar in the Late Triassic to these of modern forms. 10 10
Display all details of A New Miniature Species of Acanthobunocephalus (Siluriformes: Aspredinidae) from the Lower Purus River Basin, Amazon Basin, Brazil A second species of Acanthobunocephalus is described from tributaries of the lower Purus River in the Amazon Basin, Brazil. Acanthobunocephalus scruggsi, new species, is distinguished from all other aspredinid species by its reduced number of fin rays: four pectoral-fin rays (vs. five or more), two dorsal-fin rays (vs. three or more, except Amaralia hypsiura), five pelvic-fin rays (vs. six), four to five anal-fin rays (vs. six or more, except Bunocephalus verrucosus), and nine caudal-fin rays (vs. 10, except Hoplomyzontinae, Amaralia, Platystacus, Bunocephalus chamaizelus, and Bunocephalus minerim). Osteological aspects of the new species of Acanthobunocephalus are described using cleared and stained specimens and high-resolution x-ray computed tomography (HRXCT), and compared with Acanthobunocephalus nicoi and other aspredinids. Generic assignment is based on putative apomorphic shared features and a morphological diagnosis for Acanthobunocephalus is presented. 1 1
Display all details of A new mammal from the Turonian-Campanian (Upper Cretaceous) Galula Formation, southwestern Tanzania We here establish a new mammaliaform genus and species, Galulatherium jenkinsi (Mammalia), from the Upper Cretaceous Galula Formation in the Rukwa Rift Basin of southwestern Tanzania. This represents the first named taxon of a mammaliaform from the entire Late Cretaceous of continental Afro-Arabia, an interval of 34 million years. Preliminary study of the holotypic and only known specimen (a partial dentary) resulted in tentative assignation to the Gondwanatheria, a poorly known, enigmatic clade of Late Cretaceous–Paleogene Gondwanan mammals (Krause et al. 2003). The application of advanced imaging (μCT) and visualization techniques permits a more detailed understanding of key anatomical features of the new taxon. It reveals that the lower dentition consisted of a large, procumbent lower incisor and four cheek teeth, all of which were evergrowing (hypselodont). Importantly, all of the teeth appear devoid of enamel. Comparisons conducted with a range of Mesozoic and selected Cenozoic mammaliaform groups document a number of features (e.g., columnar, enamel-less and evergrowing teeth, with relatively simple occlusal morphology) expressed in Galulatherium that are reminiscent of several distantly related groups, making taxonomic assignment difficult at this time. Herein we retain the provisional referral of Galulatherium (RRBP 02067) to Gondwanatheria, it is most similar to sudamericids such as Lavanify and Bharratherium from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar and India, respectively, in exhibiting relatively simple, high-crowned, columnar cheek teeth. Other features (e.g., enamel-less dentition) are shared with disparate forms such as the Late Jurassic Fruitafossor and toothed xenarthrans (e.g., sloths), here attributed to convergence. Revised analyses of the depositional context for the holotype place it as having lived sometime between the late Turonian and latest Campanian (roughly 91–72 million years ago). This enhanced geochronological context helps to refine the palaeobiogeographical significance of Galulatherium among Cretaceous mammals in general and those from Gondwanan landmasses specifically. 8 1
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