Media are grouped by projects created by users. Projects tend to contain media tied together by a theme. A project might represent the dataset for a single peer-reviewed paper, the results of a collections digitization project, or data for a digital lesson plan.
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|Display all details of TEMPO birds||High resolution CT scans of full bird skeletons from the TEMPO project — quantifying variation in rates and constraints on avian skeletal evolution. Bjarnason A, Benson RBJ. 2021. A 3D geometric morphometric dataset quantifying skeletal variation in birds. MorphoMuseuM. doi.org/10.18563/journal.m3.125 Be sure to fully acknowledge the museum collections that provided specimens (see 'locations' and specimen metadata). Please notify the curators of those collections of publications resulting from work using these datasets. European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program 2014–2018 under grant agreement 677774 (European Research Council [ERC] Starting Grant: TEMPO). For access to specimens, we thank Judith White and Jo Cooper (Natural History Museum bird collection, Tring, UK), Janet Hinshaw (University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, Ann Arbour, Michigan), Mathew Lowe and Mike Brooke (Unviersity Museum of Zoology, Cambridge, UK), Mark Carnall and Eileen Westwig (Oxford University Museum of Natural History, Oxford, UK), Kristof Zyskowski (Yale Peabody Museum, New Haven, Conecticut), Ben Marks and John Bates (Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago). For access to CT scanning facilities we thank Ketura Smithson (Cambridge Biotomography Centre), Tom Davies, Ben Moon and Liz Martin-Silverstone (University of Bristol), Vincent Fernandez (Natural History Museum), April Neander and Zhe-Xi Luo (University of Chicago PaleoCT), and Matt Friedman (University of Michigan).||Benson, Roger||3789||362|
|Display all details of Feeding capability in the extinct giant Siamogale melilutra (Lutrinae, Mustelidae, Carnivora, Mammalia)||At 50 kg in estimated weight, the extinct lutrine Siamogale melilutra is larger than all living otters, and ranks among the largest fossil otters. The biomechanical capability of S. melilutra jaws as related to their large size is unknown but crucial to reconstructing the species’ potentially unique ecological niche. Here we compare the mandibular biomechanics of S. melilutra using engineering-based performance measures against ten extant otter biomechanical models. Despite a wide range of feeding preferences from durophagy to piscivory, living otter species exhibit a significant linear relationship between mandibular stiffness and volume, as expected in isometry. In contrast, S. melilutra models exhibit a six-fold increase in stiffness from expected isometric relationships calculated from living species. Unlike stiffness, mechanical efficiency of biting is conserved among living otters and in S. melilutra. These findings indicate that although similar to living bunodont otters in morphology and biting efficiency, jaw strength in S. melilutra far surpasses living molluscivores such as sea otters and Cape clawless otters, even after accounting for size. Therefore, Siamogale represents a feeding ecomorphology with no living analog, and its giant size and high mandibular strength confer shell-crushing capability matched only by other extinct molluscivores such as the marine bear Kolponomos.||26||9|
|Display all details of Scans of Carolina Biological Supply Specimens||This project contains scans of specimens purchased from Carolina Biological Supply.||3D Anatomy Studios||3D Anatomy Studios||19||2|
|Display all details of Ulster Museum_ First dinosaur remains from Ireland||Several specimens from the Lias Group (Lower Jurassic) of Northern Ireland have been suspected as dinosaurian in origin. Bone histology and morphology demonstrates that two of these, both from the same locality in Co. Antrim, demonstrably are from dinosaurs. We interpret one as the proximal end of the left femur of a basal thyreophoran ornithischian, and tentatively assign it to cf. Scelidosaurus. The other is the proximal part of the left tibia of an indeterminate neotheropod, perhaps a member of the averostran-line similar to Sarcosaurus, or a megalosauroid. These are the first dinosaur remains reported from anywhere in Ireland and some of the most westerly in Europe, and they are among only a small number of dinosaurs known from the Hettangian Stage. Two additional specimens are no longer considered to be from dinosaurs. We interpret one as a surangular or mandible fragment from a large marine reptile, perhaps an ichthyosaur or pliosaur; the other is a polygonal fragment of Paleocene basalt. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pgeola.2020.06.005||2||2|
|Display all details of Smithsonian Institution - Division of Birds||This site is for all 3D and CT images of National Museum of Natural History (USNM) Division of Birds specimens.||119||78|
|Display all details of Canoville et al._Systemic distribution of medullary bone in the avian skeleton: ground truthing criteria for the identification of reproductive tissues in extinct Avemetatarsalia||Medullary bone (MB) is an estrogen-dependent, sex-specific tissue produced by female birds during lay and inferred to be present in extinct avemetatarsalians (bird-line archosaurs). Although preliminary studies suggest that MB can be deposited within most skeletal elements, these are restricted to commercial layers or hormonally treated male pigeons, which are poor analogues for wild birds. By contrast, studies in wild bird species noted the presence of MB almost exclusively within limb bones, spurring the misconception that MB deposition is largely restricted to these regions. These disparate claims have cast doubt on the nature of MB-like tissues observed in some extinct avemetatarsalians because of their “unusual” anatomical locations. Furthermore, previous work reported that MB deposition is related to blood supply and pneumatization patterns, yet these hypotheses have not been tested widely in birds. To document the skeletal distribution of MB across Neornithes, reassess previous hypotheses pertaining to its deposition/distribution patterns, and refine the set of criteria by which to evaluate the nature of purported MB tissue in extinct avemetatarsalians, we CT-scanned skeletons of 40 female birds (38 species) that died during the egg-laying cycle, recorded presence or absence of MB in 19 skeletal regions, and assessed pneumatization of stylopods. Selected elements were destructively analyzed to ascertain the chemical and histological nature of observed endosteal bone tissues in “contentious” skeletal regions. Although its skeletal distribution varies interspecifically, we find MB to be a systemic tissue that can be deposited within virtually all skeletal regions, including cranial elements. We also provide evidence that the deposition of MB is dictated by skeletal distribution patterns of both pneumaticity and bone marrow, two factors linked to ecology (body size, foraging). Hence, skeletal distribution of MB is extensive in small-bodied and diving birds, but more restricted in large-bodied species or efficient flyers. Previously outlined anatomical locations of purported MB in extinct taxa are invalid criticisms against their potential reproductive nature. Moreover, the proposed homology of lung tissues between birds and some extinct avemetatarsalians permit us to derive a series of location-based predictions that can be used to critically evaluate MB-like tissues in fossil specimens.||71||40|
|Display all details of Martinez et al. (2019) A missing piece of the Papio puzzle: Gorongosa baboon phenostructure and intrageneric relationships.||Most authors recognize six baboon species: hamadryas (Papio hamadryas), Guinea (Papio papio), olive (Papio anubis), yellow (Papio cynocephalus), chacma (Papio ursinus), and Kinda (Papio kindae). However, there is still debate regarding the taxonomic status, phylogenetic relationships, and the amount of gene flow occurring between species. Here, we present ongoing research on baboon morphological diversity in Gorongosa National Park (GNP), located in central Mozambique, south of the Zambezi River, at the southern end of the East African Rift System. The park exhibits outstanding ecological diversity and hosts more than 200 baboon troops. Gorongosa National Park baboons have previously been classified as chacma baboons (P. ursinus). In accordance with this, two mtDNA samples from the park have been placed in the same mtDNA clade as the northern chacma baboons. However, GNP baboons exhibit morphological features common in yellow baboons (e.g., yellow fur color), suggesting that parapatric gene flow between chacma and yellow baboons might have occurred in the past or could be ongoing. We investigated the phenostructure of the Gorongosa baboons using two approaches: 1) description of external phenotypic features, such as coloration and body size, and 2) 3D geometric morphometric analysis of 43 craniofacial landmarks on 11 specimens from Gorongosa compared to a pan-African sample of 352 baboons. The results show that Gorongosa baboons exhibit a mosaic of features shared with southern P. cynocephalus and P. ursinus griseipes. The GNP baboon phenotype fits within a geographic clinal pattern of replacing allotaxa. We put forward the hypothesis of either past and/or ongoing hybridization between the gray-footed chacma and southern yellow baboons in Gorongosa or an isolation-by-distance scenario in which the GNP baboons are geographically and morphologically intermediate. These two scenarios are not mutually exclusive. We highlight the potential of baboons as a useful model to understand speciation and hybridization in early human evolution.||1||1|
|Display all details of Ferreira et al. 2021. Supplementary models to "Contrasting brains and bones: neuroanatomical evolution of turtles (Testudinata)"||This project includes all the braincase endocast and brain digital models generated and used in the analyses of the chapter Ferreira, Werneburg, Lautenschlager & Evers 2021. Supplementary models to chapter "Contrasting brains and bones: neuroanatomical evolution of turtles (Testudinata)" in: Dozo et al. 2021 "Paleoneurology of Amniotes".||Ferreira et al. 2021. Supplementary models to chapter "Contrasting brains and bones: neuroanatomical evolution of turtles (Testudinata)"||60||24|
|Display all details of Braincase anatomy of extant Crocodylia, with new insights into development and evolution of the neurocranium in crocodylomorphs||Present-day crocodylians exhibit a remarkably akinetic skull with a highly modified braincase. We present a comprehensive description of the neurocranial osteology of extant crocodylians, with notes on the development of individual skeletal elements and a discussion of the applied terminology. The quadrate is rigidly fixed by multiple contacts with almost all braincase elements. The parabasisphenoid is sutured to the pterygoids (palate) and the quadrate (suspensorium), consequently, the basipterygoid joint is completely immobilized. The prootic is reduced and externally hidden by the quadrate. The prootic has a verticalized buttress that participates in the canal for the temporal vasculature. The ventrolateral processes of the otoccipitals completely cover the posteroventral region of the braincase and enclose the occipital nerves and blood vessels into narrow bony canals. The ventrolateral processes of the otoccipitals provide additional sutural contacts between the braincase elements and further consolidate the posterior aspect of the crocodylian skull. The otic capsule of crocodylians has a characteristic cochlear prominence that corresponds to the lateral route of the perilymphatic sac. Complex internal structures of the otoccipital (extracapsular buttress) additionally arrange the neurovascular structures of the periotic space of the skull. Most of the braincase elements of crocodylians are excavated by the paratympanic pneumatic sinuses. The braincase of various extant crocodylians has an overall similar structure with some consistent variation between taxa. Several features of the braincase are present in Gavialis gangeticus and extant members of Crocodylidae to the exclusion of alligatorids: the reduced prootic buttress, the sagittal nuchal crest of the supraoccipital that projects posteriorly beyond the postoccipital processes, reduced paratympanic pneumaticity. The most distinctive features of the crocodylian braincase (fixed quadrate and basipterygoid joint, consolidated occiput) have evolved relatively rapidly at the base of Crocodylomorpha and accompanied the initial diversification of the clade during the Late Triassic–Early Jurassic. We hypothesize that profound rearrangements in the individual development of the braincase of basal crocodylomorphs underlie these rapid evolutionary modifications. These rearrangements are likely reflected in the embryonic development of extant crocodylians and include the involvement of neomorphic dermal anlagen into different portions of the developing cranium, the extensive ossification of the palatoquadrate cartilage as a single expanded quadrate, and the anteromedial inclination of the latter element.||Ivan Kuzmin||21||4|
|Display all details of Ferreira & Werneburg 2021. PTA-CT scans of extant turtle skulls||Please note related publications: 1. Ferreira GS, Lautenschlager S, Evers SW, Pfaff C, Kriwet J, Raselli I, Werneburg I. 2020. Feeding biomechanics suggests progressive correlation of skull architecture and neck evolution in turtles. Scientific Reports 10: 5505, doi: doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-62179-5 2. Werneburg I, Evers SW, Ferreira GS. 2021. On the "cartilaginous rider" in the endocasts of turtle brain cavities. Vertebrate Zoology 71: 403-418, doi: 10.3897/vz.71.e66756 3. Ferreira GS, Werneburg I, Lautenschlager S, Evers SW. In review. Contrasting brains and bones: neuroanatomical evolution of turtles (Testudinata). In: Paleoneurology of Amniotes: new directions in the study of fossil endocasts, Dozo MT, Paulina-Carabajal A, Macrini TE, Walsh S (Eds).||Ferreira, Gabriel||15||15|