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|Display all details of A New Look at Carboniferous Rhizodontid Humeri (Sarcopterygii||The Rhizodontida are a group of tetrapodomorph sarcopterygian fishes with a worldwide distribution in the Devonian and Carboniferous periods. Rhizodontids were first described in the United Kingdom, with Carboniferous taxa such as Rhizodus, Strepsodus and Archichthys based on isolated teeth (probably symphysial tusks) with distinctive morphologies. Some isolated fin material has also been described, including humeri, but this material has generally been assigned to either Rhizodus or Strepsodus on the basis of its size (with the larger material assigned to Rhizodus) or lithology (with specimens in coalshale assigned to Strepsodus). As a first step towards resolving this situation, we have utilized micro-CT scans of UK rhizodontid humeri, including newly discovered specimens from Scotland, to establish four distinct humeral morphogroups. This provides a robust framework for interpreting future discoveries, with the hope that these morphogroups can ultimately be securely linked with the tooth morphologies. The histology of the endochondral bone of the rhizodontid humerus is also described for the first time.||9||9|
|Display all details of Morphometric Analysis of Lungfish Endocasts Elucidates Early Dipnoan Palaeoneurological Evolution||Lungfish (Dipnoi) are lobe-finned fish (Sarcopterygii) that have persisted for over 400 million years from the Devonian Period to present day. They are the extant sister group to tetrapods and thus have the ability to provide unique insight into the condition of the earliest tetrapods as well as their own evolutionary history. The evolution of their dermal skull and dentition is relatively well understood, but this is not the case for the central nervous system. While the brain itself has very poor preservation potential and is not currently known in any fossil lungfish, substantial indirect information about it and associated structures such as the inner ears can be obtained from the cranial endocast. However, before the recent development of X-ray tomography as a palaeontological tool, these endocasts could not be studied non-destructively, and few detailed studies were undertaken. Here we describe and illustrate the endocasts of six Palaeozoic lungfishes (Iowadipterus halli, Gogodipterus paddyensis, Pillararhynchus longi, Griphognathus whitei, Orlovichthys limnatis, and Rhinodipterus ulrichi) from tomographic scans. We combine these with six previously described lungfish endocasts (4 fossil and 2 recent taxa), also based on tomographic studies, into a 12-taxon data set for multivariate morphometric analysis using 17 variables. We find that the olfactory region appears to be more highly plastic than the hindbrain, and undergoes significant elongation in several taxa. Further, while the semicircular canals covary as an integrated module, the utriculus and sacculus of the inner ear instead vary independently of each other. The functional and phylogenetic implications of our findings are discussed.||Clement, Alice||5||5|
|Display all details of AMNH Mammal Collection||Wet and osteological specimens from the AMNH mammal collections scanned as part of project NSF BCS 1552848 to D M Boyer||3613||130|
|Display all details of Quantitative analyses of squamate dentition demonstrate novel morphological patterns||Squamates are ideal subjects for investigating relationships between diet and dental patterns because they exhibit wide dietary diversity, marked variation in dental shape, and are taxonomically abundant. Despite this, well-established links between diet and dental morphology are primarily qualitative in nature, with specific patterns of squamate dental complexity remaining largely unknown. Here, we use quantitative methods and a broad taxonomic dataset to quantify key patterns in squamate dental morphology, including re-examining the relationship between dentition and diet, testing for differences in complexity between dentigerous elements, and exploring the effect of ontogenetic dietary shifts in dental complexity in two iguanid genera. Our findings support previous research by demonstrating that species consuming more plant material possess more complex teeth. We did not find significant complexity differences between the left and right dentigerous elements nor the upper and lower jaws, with the exception of Amblyrhynchus cristatus, the marine iguana, which possesses significantly more complex dentary teeth than maxillary teeth. We find discordant patterns when testing for dental complexity changes through ontogeny. Amblyrhynchus, which is primarily herbivorous throughout its lifetime, increases dental complexity through ontogeny, whereas Ctenosaura, which is generally insectivorous as juveniles and herbivorous as adults, decreases dental complexity. Although preliminary, this research documents and quantifies novel patterns of squamate dental complexity and exhibits the possibilities for further research on the diversity of squamate dental morphology.||Melstrom, Keegan||32||10|
|Display all details of Evers. 2021. Extant and fossil turtle labyrinth and cranial models||This data collection contains 3D models of labyrinth models and crania of turtles and is intended as a supplement currently under revision. The data are made available prior to publication of the paper to facilitate peer review and data access. This text will be updated once the paper is accepted/published.||334||168|
|Display all details of GalapaGateway||3D surface scans and CT-scans of the Galapagos Collection at the California Academy of Sciences||74||44|
|Display all details of California Academy of Sciences Ornithology Collection||8||8|
|Display all details of oVert: UW - CT Scan all Fishes||The aim of this project is the scan ALL the fishes even the sarcopterygians On every scan page there is a link to the proper way to reference the data if they are used in a publication. We would also appreciate a note if you get something useful out of these data. You can follow along with what is posted here at the Twitter hashtag #ScanAllFishes. All of the fishes we have scanner are listed in a Google Doc Sheet but I can't add a link to this abstract. Getting the data up on this site is a serious bottleneck. If you need a particular species we will move the slice data here ASAP. Email Adam Summers. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation and the Seaver Institute.||3736||2629|
|Display all details of van Leeuwen et al - Stress distribution and the influence of morphology during grasping in the bonobo (Pan paniscus) trapeziometacarpal joint||The thumb is a crucial structure in primate evolution due to its role in grasping, and its basal trapeziometacarpal (TMC) joint is critical to its function. The TMC joint morphology varies across primates, yet little is known about form function interaction within in the TMC joint. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the TMC joint morphology influences stress distributions within the joint during five grasping types commonly employed by bonobos (Pan paniscus). We use CT-imaging of five cadaveric bonobo forearms in five standardized positions of the hand as a basis for the generation of parametric finite element models to compare grasps employed by living bonobos. We use finite element analysis (FEA) to simulate TMC joint articular force distributions to investigate stress patterns associated with each grasp type. Inter-individual stress variations and patterns deviating from grasp expectations are analysed to identify aspects of the individual TMC joint morphology that influence joint interactions. The models show a high agreement between simulated and expected stress patterns for each of the five grasps (86% of successful simulations), while partially (52%) and fully (16%) deviating patterns were also encountered. For these deviant cases, variations of key morphological features in the bonobo TMC joint are identified to account for the deviating stress patterns. This study gives biomechanical insight in the form-function interactions in the TMC joint of the bonobo, a species under-represented in anatomical and biomechanical literature despite its endangered conservation status and close phylogenetic relation to modern humans.||Evie Vereecke||23||5|
|Display all details of Postnatal development in a marsupial model, the fat-tailed dunnart (Sminthopsis crassicaudata; Dasyuromorphia: Dasuryidae)||Marsupials exhibit unique biological features that provide fascinating insights into many aspects of mammalian development. These include their distinctive mode of reproduction, altricial developmental stage at birth and the associated extreme skeletal heterochrony that is required for their crawl to the mother’s pouch and attachment to the teat. Marsupials are also an invaluable resource for mammalian comparative biology as they form a unique lineage distinct from the extant placental and egg-laying monotreme mammals. Despite their unique biology, marsupial resources are lagging behind those for placental mammals, largely due to the lack of a well-developed, laboratory-based marsupial model species. The fat-tailed dunnart (Sminthopsis crassicaudata) is an excellent candidate laboratory marsupial model that requires simple and robust husbandry, has a short reproductive cycle and is amenable to experimental manipulations. Here we present a detailed staging series for the dunnart, focusing on their extensive skeletal heterochrony with accelerated development of the forelimbs and jaws compared with the placental fetus. This study provides the first skeletal developmental series on the fat-tailed dunnart and provides a fundamental resource for future studies exploring mammalian diversification, development and evolution.||28||27|