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|Display all details of Protoceras celer skulls||Robson, Selina||5||4|
|Display all details of Nyssa nanningensis||A new species Nyssa nanningensis is described based on fruit endocarps from the upper Oligocene Yongning Formation of the Nanning Basin, South China. Endocarp woody, with the widest point above the midline, dorsally flattened, unilocular. Broadly sub-triangular germination valve with rounded lateral edges. Locule roughly W-shaped in transverse section.||6||1|
|Display all details of Raw CT data of QMF14.548||Based on the known fossil record, the majority of crocodylians from the Cenozoic Era of Australia are referred to the extinct clade Mekosuchinae. The only extant crocodylians in Australia are two species of Crocodylus. Hence, the viewpoint that Crocodylus and mekosuchines have been the only crocodylians inhabiting Australia during the Cenozoic has remained largely undisputed. Herein we describe Australia’s first tomistomine crocodylian, Gunggamarandu maunala gen. et sp. nov., thus challenging the notion of mekosuchine dominance during most of the Cenozoic. The holotype specimen of Gunggamarandu maunala derives from the Pliocene or Pleistocene of south-eastern Queensland, marking the southern-most global record for Tomistominae. Gunggamarandu maunala is known from a large, incomplete cranium that possesses a unique combination of features that distinguishes it from other crocodylians. Phylogenetic analyses place Gunggamarandu in a basal position within Tomistominae, specifically as a sister taxon to Dollosuchoides from the Eocene of Europe. These results hint at a potential ghost lineage between European and Australian tomistomines going back more than 50 million years. The cranial proportions of the Gunggamarandu maunala holotype specimen indicate it is the largest crocodyliform yet discovered from Australia.||1||1|
|Display all details of Fetal to early postnatal morphogenesis of the sphenoid in primates||6||6|
|Display all details of Paranasal sinus system and upper respiratory tract evolution in Mesozoic pelagic crocodylomorphs||Thomas Cowgill||32||14|
|Display all details of Fossil Elgaria and alligator lizard phylogeny||37||37|
|Display all details of DiceCT of salamander limbs||NYIT Viscenter||14||9|
|Display all details of Anatomy and systematics of the diplodocoid Amphicoelias altus supports high sauropod dinosaur diversity in the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation of the USA||Sauropod dinosaurs were an abundant and diverse component of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation of the USA, with 24 currently recognized species. However, some authors consider this high diversity to have been ecologically unviable and the validity of some species has been questioned, with suggestions that they represent growth series (ontogimorphs) of other species. Under this scenario, high sauropod diversity in the Late Jurassic of North America is greatly overestimated. One putative ontogimorph is the enigmatic diplodocoid Amphicoelias altus, which has been suggested to be synonymous with Diplodocus. Given that Amphicoelias was named first, it has priority and thus Diplodocus would become its junior synonym. Here, we provide a detailed re-description of A. altus in which we restrict it to the holotype individual and support its validity, based on three autapomorphies. Constraint analyses demonstrate that its phylogenetic position within Diplodocoidea is labile, but it seems unlikely that Amphicoelias is synonymous with Diplodocus. As such, our re-evaluation also leads us to retain Diplodocus as a distinct genus. There is no evidence to support the view that any of the currently recognized Morrison sauropod species are ontogimorphs. Available data indicate that sauropod anatomy did not dramatically alter once individuals approached maturity. Furthermore, subadult sauropod individuals are not prone to stemward slippage in phylogenetic analyses, casting doubt on the possibility that their taxonomic affinities are substantially misinterpreted. An anatomical feature can have both an ontogenetic and phylogenetic signature, but the former does not outweigh the latter when other characters overwhelmingly support the affinities of a taxon. Many Morrison Formation sauropods were spatio-temporally and/or ecologically separated from one another. Combined with the biases that cloud our reading of the fossil record, we contend that the number of sauropod dinosaur species in the Morrison Formation is currently likely to be underestimated, not overestimated.||4||1|
|Display all details of Strepsirrhine middle ear bones||100||43|
|Display all details of The stapes of stem and extinct Marsupialia: implications for the ancestral condition||This paper describes, for the first time, the stapedes of several non-marsupial species of the metatherian clade Sparassodonta (Sipalocyon gracilis, Arctodictis sinclairi, and Borhyaena tuberata) which were fortuitously encountered during routine microtomography. To augment our comparative set we also scanned and reconstructed single examples of the stapedes of the fossil taxa Sparassocynus bahiai and Thylophorops cf. T. chapalmalensis (Didelphimorphia), Argyrolagus scagliai (?Paucituberculata), as well as single examples drawn from extant members of Caenolestidae (Caenolestes sp.) and Microbiotheriidae (Dromiciops gliroides). The sparassodont, didelphid, and microbiotherian samples exhibit a common bauplan (stapes triangular, with intracrural foramen), whereas the paucituberculatan samples differ in possessing columelliform, imperforate stapes as also previously reported for various australidelphians. The stapedial footplate is rounded in sparassodonts (stapedial ratio, ~1.6), in both of the fossil didelphimorphians (~1.7), and in the fossil ?paucituberculatan (~1.5). According to our optimization of our results of mammalian phylogeny, and in contrast to some other reconstructions, a triangular stapes with intracrural foramen and rounded footplate is likely the ancestral condition for Marsupialia. No particular function can be correlated with possession of the intracrural foramen as opposed to an imperforate stapes, apart from accommodation of the proximal stapedial artery (as seen also in many eutherians). The frequent presence of the intracrural foramen in members of both infraclasses suggests that the ontogenies of the second arch’s blood supply (stapedial artery) and its main skeletal element (stapes) have remained strongly integrated throughout therian evolution, even in cases in which the proximal part of the vessel involutes.||Gaillard, Charlène||7||7|